Tobacco consumption is recognised as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In Yamal, among the aborigines, in addition to smoking, there is a widespread habit of chewing tobacco mixtures as a stimulant. The tobacco blend is composed of 50% tobacco and 50% ash wood mushroom ‘Ganoderma’.
Accommodation in the Arctic region is associated with a considerable load on the circulatory system, demanding human adaptation to a large number of aggressive factors of an environment. Adaptive capacity is an indicator of the level of adaptation of the human body to various and changing environmental factors. The aim of this study to evaluate the effect on adaptive capacity of tobacco consumption in the form of chewing and smoking mixtures among the aborigines of the Arctic.
We examined 184 tobacco smokers and 92 tobacco chewers living in rural settlements and leading a traditional nomadic lifestyle on the tundra in the territory north of the 65th parallel in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous district. Men participated in the survey 88 (31.9%) and 188 women (68.1%). Theaverage age of the examined patients was 41.8±13.5 years. The survey consisted of: questionnaires, anthropometry, blood pressure measurement, cardiointervalography. Among the examined inhabitants was defined, adaptive capacity is the regulation of blood flow, which was calculated by the formula developed by R. M. Baevsky (1979): AP=0,011*PS+0,014*systolic blood pressure+0,018*diastolic blood pressure+0,014*Age+0,009*Weight-0,009*Growth-0,27. Statistical data processing was performed using statistical software package Statistica 8.0. To determine the significance of differences we used the Mann-Whitney test (U).
The study found that among the surveyed aboriginal population adaptive capacity using chewing mixture made up 3.5 [3,1-4,1], which is higher than in smokers 3,2 [2,9-3,6] (U=5943,0; p<0.001). These indicators characterize the reduced functionality of the circulatory system with the insufficient adaptability to stress (the higher these indicators, the closer a failure to adapt).
The results of the studies revealed that individuals who use tobacco in the form of chewing mixtures are characterised by less functional reserves and have a higher threat of disruption of adaptation mechanisms.